Stanford encylopedia of philosophy

The term “value theory” is used in at least three different ways in philosophy. In its broadest sense, “value theory” is a catch-all label used to encompass all branches of moral philosophy, social and political philosophy, aesthetics, and sometimes feminist philosophy and the philosophy of religion — whatever areas of philosophy are deemed to encompass some ….

1. Life and work. Husserl was born in Prossnitz (Moravia) on April 8 th, 1859. His parents were non-orthodox Jews; Husserl himself and his wife would later convert to Protestantism. They had three children, one of whom died in World War I. In the years 1876–78 Husserl studied astronomy in Leipzig, where he also attended courses of lectures in ...Plato on Rhetoric and Poetry. First published Mon Dec 22, 2003; substantive revision Wed Feb 12, 2020. Plato’s discussions of rhetoric and poetry are both extensive and influential. As in so many other cases, he sets the agenda for the subsequent tradition. And yet understanding his remarks about each of these topics—rhetoric and poetry ...Sovereignty, though its meanings have varied across history, also has a core meaning, supreme authority within a territory. It is a modern notion of political authority. Historical variants can be understood along three dimensions — the holder of sovereignty, the absoluteness of sovereignty, and the internal and external dimensions of ...

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Knowledge How. First published Tue Apr 20, 2021. In introductory classes to epistemology, we are taught to distinguish between three different kinds of knowledge. The first kind is acquaintance knowledge: we know our mothers, our friends, our pets, etc., by being acquainted with them. The second kind is knowledge of facts, propositional ...3. Naturalism. Recall that naturalism is the view that a physical life is central to life's meaning, that even if there is no spiritual realm, a substantially meaningful life is possible. Like supernaturalism, contemporary naturalism admits of two distinguishable variants, moderate and extreme (Metz 2019).Edith Stein (1891–1942) was a realist phenomenologist associated with the Göttingen school and later a Christian metaphysician. She was a Jew who converted to Catholicism in 1922 and was ordained a Carmelite nun in 1933. She died in Auschwitz in 1942. She was subsequently declared a Catholic martyr and saint.Sep 30, 2011 · The Greek word sophistēs, formed from the noun sophia, ‘wisdom’ or ‘learning’, has the general sense ‘one who exercises wisdom or learning’. As sophia could designate specific types of expertise as well as general sagacity in the conduct of life and the higher kinds of insight associated with seers and poets, the word originally ...

Carl Schmitt. First published Sat Aug 7, 2010; substantive revision Thu Aug 29, 2019. Carl Schmitt (1888–1985) was a conservative German legal, constitutional, and political theorist. Schmitt is often considered to be one of the most important critics of liberalism, parliamentary democracy, and liberal cosmopolitanism.Critical Theory. First published Tue Mar 8, 2005. Critical Theory has a narrow and a broad meaning in philosophy and in the history of the social sciences. “Critical Theory” in the narrow sense designates several generations of German philosophers and social theorists in the Western European Marxist tradition known as the Frankfurt School.British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 69: 421–445. Amundson, R., 2000. “Against Normal Function,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science (Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences), 31: 33–53. Antonovsky, A., 1987.Homosexuality. First published Tue Aug 6, 2002; substantive revision Tue Apr 28, 2020. The term ‘homosexuality’ was coined in the late 19 th century by an Austrian-born Hungarian psychologist, Karoly Maria Benkert. Although the term is new, discussions about sexuality in general, and same-sex attraction in particular, have occasioned ...

Welcome to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP), which as of March 2018, has nearly 1600 entries online. From its inception, the SEP was designed so that each entry is maintained and kept up-to-date by an expert or group of experts in the field. All entries and substantive updates are refereed by the members of a distinguished ...Process Philosophy. First published Mon Oct 15, 2012; substantive revision Thu May 26, 2022. Process philosophy is based on the premise that being is dynamic and that the dynamic nature of being should be the primary focus of any comprehensive philosophical account of reality and our place within it. Even though we experience our world and ...John Dewey (1910: 74, 82) introduced the term ‘critical thinking’ as the name of an educational goal, which he identified with a scientific attitude of mind. More commonly, he called the goal ‘reflective thought’, ‘reflective thinking’, ‘reflection’, or just ‘thought’ or ‘thinking’. He describes his book as written for ... ….

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Plutarch of Chaeronea in Boeotia ( ca. 45–120 CE) was a Platonist philosopher, best known to the general public as author of his “Parallel Lives” of paired Greek and Roman statesmen and military leaders. He was a voluminous writer, author also of a collection of “Moralia” or “Ethical Essays,” mostly in dialogue format, many of ...In today’s fast-paced world, managing our health can be a challenging task. With so many responsibilities and distractions, it’s easy to forget about our physical and mental well-being. However, with the My Health at Stanford Login tool, ma...[This was the previous entry on scientific realism in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy — see the version history.] Worrall, John, “ Miracles, Pessimism, and Scientific Realism , unpublished manuscript.

Gödel’s incompleteness theorems are among the most important results in modern logic. These discoveries revolutionized the understanding of mathematics and logic, and had dramatic implications for the philosophy of mathematics. There have also been attempts to apply them in other fields of philosophy, but the legitimacy of many such ...First published Tue Jul 16, 2002; substantive revision Sat Jul 11, 2020. The laden phrase “identity politics” has come to signify a wide range of political activity and theorizing founded in the shared experiences of injustice of members of certain social groups. Rather than organizing solely around belief systems, programmatic manifestos ...Dewey’s Political Philosophy. First published Wed Feb 9, 2005; substantive revision Thu Feb 9, 2023. John Dewey (1859–1952) was an American philosopher, associated with pragmatism. His immense philosophical and other written output encompasses most areas of philosophy as well as a host of other educational, social and political concerns.Experimental philosophy is an approach to philosophy that explicitly draws on experimental knowledge established by the sciences to address philosophical questions (see the entry on experimental moral philosophy). There are three significant ways in which experimental philosophy has played an important role in discussions of moral relativism.

It was not until John Locke that there was an explicit attempt to connect personal identity with broader ethical concerns. Locke famously called “person” a forensic term, “appropriating actions and their merit; and so belongs only to intelligent agents capable of a law, and happiness, and misery” (Locke 1694, 50–51).Dewey’s Political Philosophy. First published Wed Feb 9, 2005; substantive revision Thu Feb 9, 2023. John Dewey (1859–1952) was an American philosopher, associated with pragmatism. His immense philosophical and other written output encompasses most areas of philosophy as well as a host of other educational, social and political concerns.

First published Fri Feb 23, 2007; substantive revision Wed Jul 12, 2017. The term “toleration”—from the Latin tolerare: to put up with, countenance or suffer—generally refers to the conditional acceptance of or non-interference with beliefs, actions or practices that one considers to be wrong but still “tolerable,” such that they ...For personalists, a person combines subjectivity and objectivity, causal activity and receptivity, unicity and relation, identity and creativity. Stressing the moral nature of the person, or the person as the subject and object of free activity, personalism tends to focus on practical, moral action and ethical questions.

ku bootcamp cost 26.12.2017 ... Welcome to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP). From its inception, the SEP was designed so that each entry is maintained and kept ... juanavana Act consequentialism is the claim that an act is morally right if and only if that act maximizes the good, that is, if and only if the total amount of good for all minus the total amount of bad for all is greater than this net amount for any incompatible act available to the agent on that occasion. (Cf. Moore 1912, chs. 1–2.)Philosophy of Biology in Latin America [ August 21, 2023] Meritocracy [ August 3, 2023] Mind (Heart-Mind) in Chinese Philosophy [ July 10, 2023] Transformative Experience [ June 1, 2023] Arabic and Islamic Philosophy of Religion [ May 31, 2023] Propositional Logic [ May 18, 2023] Atonement [ April 5, 2023] ku bball score Epistemology of Geometry. Geometrical knowledge typically concerns two kinds of things: theoretical or abstract knowledge contained in the definitions, axioms, theorems, and proofs in a system of geometry; and some knowledge of the external world, such as is expressed in terms of a system of physical geometry. The nature of the … exercise science university Sep 30, 2011 · The Greek word sophistēs, formed from the noun sophia, ‘wisdom’ or ‘learning’, has the general sense ‘one who exercises wisdom or learning’. As sophia could designate specific types of expertise as well as general sagacity in the conduct of life and the higher kinds of insight associated with seers and poets, the word originally ... The Problem of Evil. First published Mon Sep 16, 2002; substantive revision Tue Mar 3, 2015. The epistemic question posed by evil is whether the world contains undesirable states of affairs that provide the basis for an argument that makes it unreasonable to believe in the existence of God. This discussion is divided into eight sections. aisha aiono volleyball Karl Popper is generally regarded as one of the greatest philosophers of science of the twentieth century. He was also a social and political philosopher of considerable stature, a self-professed critical-rationalist, a dedicated opponent of all forms of scepticism and relativism in science and in human affairs generally and a committed advocate and staunch defender of the …[This was the previous entry on Erasmus in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy — see the version history.] “Erasmus, Desiderius”, entry by Eric MacPhail in the The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Erasmus Center for Early Modern Studies, a joint initiative of Erasmus University Rotterdam and Rotterdam City Library. blow mold wisemen Bertrand Russell. Bertrand Arthur William Russell (1872–1970) was a British philosopher, logician, essayist and social critic best known for his work in mathematical logic and analytic philosophy. His most influential contributions include his championing of logicism (the view that mathematics is in some important sense reducible to logic ...1. Aims and Methods of Moral Philosophy. The most basic aim of moral philosophy, and so also of the Groundwork, is, in Kant’s view, to “seek out” the foundational principle of a “metaphysics of morals,” which Kant understands as a system of a priori moral principles that apply the CI to human persons in all times and cultures.Sep 25, 2007 · Philosophy of Mathematics. If mathematics is regarded as a science, then the philosophy of mathematics can be regarded as a branch of the philosophy of science, next to disciplines such as the philosophy of physics and the philosophy of biology. However, because of its subject matter, the philosophy of mathematics occupies a special place in ... doctor of social work programs Metaphysics. It is not easy to say what metaphysics is. Ancient and Medieval philosophers might have said that metaphysics was, like chemistry or astrology, to be defined by its subject-matter: metaphysics was the “science” that studied “being as such” or “the first causes of things” or “things that do not change”.Gödel’s two incompleteness theorems are among the most important results in modern logic, and have deep implications for various issues. They concern the limits of provability in formal axiomatic theories. The first incompleteness theorem states that in any consistent formal system \ (F\) within which a certain amount of arithmetic can be ... ku admissions reps First published Sat Mar 20, 2004; substantive revision Sat Feb 12, 2022. Plato (429?–347 B.C.E.) is, by any reckoning, one of the most dazzling writers in the Western literary tradition and one of the most penetrating, wide-ranging, and influential authors in … xx colombiano Confirmation. First published Thu May 30, 2013; substantive revision Tue Jan 28, 2020. Human cognition and behavior heavily relies on the notion that evidence (data, premises) can affect the credibility of hypotheses (theories, conclusions). This general idea seems to underlie sound and effective inferential practices in all sorts of domains ...This article considers several questions concerning the philosophy of death. First, it discusses what it is to be alive. This topic arises because to die is roughly to lose one’s life. The second topic is the nature of death, and how it bears on the persistence of organisms and persons. The third topic is the harm thesis, the claim that death ... accuweather wabash indianasteven leonard The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy organizes scholars from around the world in philosophy and related disciplines to create and maintain an up-to-date reference work. Co-Principal Editors: Edward N. Zalta and Uri Nodelman. Masthead | Editorial Board. cuales son los paises de centro america Critical Theory. First published Tue Mar 8, 2005. Critical Theory has a narrow and a broad meaning in philosophy and in the history of the social sciences. “Critical Theory” in the narrow sense designates several generations of German philosophers and social theorists in the Western European Marxist tradition known as the Frankfurt School. walk in clinics lawrence ks Dec 16, 2015 · First published Wed Dec 16, 2015; substantive revision Fri Oct 9, 2020. Decision theory is concerned with the reasoning underlying an agent’s choices, whether this is a mundane choice between taking the bus or getting a taxi, or a more far-reaching choice about whether to pursue a demanding political career. (Note that “agent” here stands ... First published Sat Mar 20, 2004; substantive revision Sat Feb 12, 2022. Plato (429?–347 B.C.E.) is, by any reckoning, one of the most dazzling writers in the Western literary tradition and one of the most penetrating, wide-ranging, and influential authors in … studies in natural products chemistry Process Philosophy. First published Mon Oct 15, 2012; substantive revision Thu May 26, 2022. Process philosophy is based on the premise that being is dynamic and that the dynamic nature of being should be the primary focus of any comprehensive philosophical account of reality and our place within it. Even though we experience our world and ... showtimes regal near me The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy organizes scholars from around the world in philosophy and related disciplines to create and maintain an up-to-date...This article considers several questions concerning the philosophy of death. First, it discusses what it is to be alive. This topic arises because to die is roughly to lose one’s life. The second topic is the nature of death, and how it bears on the persistence of organisms and persons. The third topic is the harm thesis, the claim that death ... prehispanicas The Problem of Evil. First published Mon Sep 16, 2002; substantive revision Tue Mar 3, 2015. The epistemic question posed by evil is whether the world contains undesirable states of affairs that provide the basis for an argument that makes it unreasonable to believe in the existence of God. This discussion is divided into eight sections.Social norms, the informal rules that govern behavior in groups and societies, have been extensively studied in the social sciences. Anthropologists have described how social norms function in different cultures (Geertz 1973), sociologists have focused on their social functions and how they motivate people to act (Durkheim 1895 [1982], 1950 ... red tire ... Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) and Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews. They appear here via special arrangement with Philosophical Percolations ... interest rates 1982 1. Aims and Methods of Moral Philosophy. The most basic aim of moral philosophy, and so also of the Groundwork, is, in Kant’s view, to “seek out” the foundational principle of a “metaphysics of morals,” which Kant understands as a system of a priori moral principles that apply the CI to human persons in all times and cultures. 2016 sienna for sale George Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne, was one of the great philosophers of the early modern period. He was a brilliant critic of his predecessors, particularly Descartes, Malebranche, and Locke. 17145 tomball parkway May 2, 2002 · Philosophy for Children. First published Thu May 2, 2002; substantive revision Fri May 27, 2022. In the United States, philosophy typically makes its formal entry into the curriculum at the college level. A growing number of high schools offer some introduction to philosophy, often in special literature courses for college bound students. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy organizes scholars from around the world in philosophy and related disciplines to create and maintain an up-to-date reference work. Co-Principal Editors: Edward N. Zalta and Uri Nodelman]